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Medical Science - Discussion

Discussion in 'Hangout' started by RaviHegde, Mar 15, 2015.

  1. Aanand

    Aanand Amatore

    Messages:
    195
    Pune
    Regarding LCHF & insulin, and in the general context of food and nutrition.
    Here’s what I found in the book ‘Textbook of Medical Physiology’, Eleventh Edition.
    The authors are Guyton & Hall
    and I suspect this book is well regarded amongst medical students, although I am not sure since I am not a medical man.

    The following extracts suggest that decreasing the consumption of carbohydrates is essential – especially for fat loss.
    Am I correct?

    Page 961-962
    Insulin Is a Hormone Associated with Energy Abundance
    As we discuss insulin in the next few pages, it will become apparent that insulin secretion is associated with energy abundance. That is, when there is great abundance of energy-giving foods in the diet, especially excess amounts of carbohydrates, insulin is secreted in great quantity.
    In turn, the insulin plays an important role in storing the excess energy.
    In the case of excess carbohydrates, it causes them to be stored as glycogen mainly in the liver and muscles.
    Also, all the excess carbohydrates that cannot be stored as glycogen are converted under the stimulus of insulin into fats and stored in the adipose tissue.
    In the case of proteins, insulin has a direct effect in promoting amino acid uptake by cells and conversion of these amino acids into protein.
    In addition, it inhibits the breakdown of the proteins that are already in the cells.

    Page 965
    Insulin Promotes Fat Synthesis and Storage
    Insulin has several effects that lead to fat storage in adipose tissue.
    First, insulin increases the utilization of glucose by most of the body’s tissues, which automatically decreases the utilization of fat, thus functioning as a fat sparer.
    However, insulin also promotes fatty acid synthesis. This is especially true when more carbohydrates are ingested than can be used for immediate energy, thus providing the substrate for fat synthesis. Almost all this synthesis occurs in the liver cells, and the fatty acids are then transported from the liver by way of the blood lipoproteins to the adipose cells to be stored.
    …Insulin activates lipoprotein lipase in the capillary walls of the adipose tissue, which splits the triglycerides again into fatty acids, a requirement for them to be absorbed into the adipose cells, where they are again converted to triglycerides and stored.

    Role of Insulin in Storage of Fat in the Adipose Cells. Insulin has two other essential effects that are required for fat storage in adipose cells:
    1. Insulin inhibits the action of hormone-sensitive lipase. This is the enzyme that causes hydrolysis of the triglycerides already stored in the fat cells. Therefore, the release of fatty acids from the adipose tissue into the circulating blood is inhibited.
    2. Insulin promotes glucose transport through the cell membrane into the fat cells in exactly the same ways that it promotes glucose transport into muscle cells. Some of this glucose is then used to synthesize minute amounts of fatty acids, but more important, it also forms large quantities of a-glycerol phosphate. This substance supplies the glycerol that combines with fatty acids to form the triglycerides that are the storage form of fat in adipose cells. Therefore, when insulin is not available, even storage of the large amounts of fatty acids transported from the liver in the lipoproteins is almost blocked.

    Page 966
    Insulin Deficiency Increases Use of Fat for Energy
    All aspects of fat breakdown and use for providing energy are greatly enhanced in the absence of insulin…
    This occurs even normally between meals when secretion of insulin is minimal, but it becomes extreme in diabetes mellitus when secretion of insulin is almost zero…

    Insulin Deficiency Causes Lipolysis of Storage Fat and Release of Free Fatty Acids. In the absence of insulin, all the effects of insulin noted earlier that cause storage of fat are reversed. The most important effect is that the enzyme hormone-sensitive lipase in the fat cells becomes strongly activated. This causes hydrolysis of the stored triglycerides, releasing large quantities of fatty acids and glycerol into the circulating blood.
    Consequently, the plasma concentration of free fatty acids begins to rise within minutes. This free fatty acid then becomes the main energy substrate used by essentially all tissues of the body besides the brain.

    Page 969-970
    Role of Insulin (and Other Hormones) in “Switching” Between Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism
    From the preceding discussions, it should be clear that insulin promotes the utilization of carbohydrates for energy, whereas it depresses the utilization of fats.
    Conversely, lack of insulin causes fat utilization mainly to the exclusion of glucose utilization, except by brain tissue.
    Furthermore, the signal that controls this switching mechanism is principally the blood glucose concentration.
    When the glucose concentration is low, insulin secretion is suppressed and fat is used almost exclusively for energy everywhere except in the brain.
    When the glucose concentration is high, insulin secretion is stimulated and carbohydrate is used instead of fat, and the excess blood glucose is stored in the form of liver glycogen, liver fat, and muscle glycogen.
    Therefore, one of the most important functional roles of insulin in the body is to control which of these two foods from moment to moment will be used by the cells for energy.
    ---------------------------------------------
  2. Aanand

    Aanand Amatore

    Messages:
    195
    Pune
    Long Distance Running
    Avoid This Popular Exercise As It Shrinks Your Muscle and Accelerates Aging
    January 06, 2012
    By Dr. Mercola
    http://fitness.mercola.com/sites/fitness/archive/2012/01/06/dr-doug-mcguff-on-exercise.aspx

    -------------------------------
    When you go to the link given above, you can see a video of the interview of Dr. McGuff by Dr. Mercola.
    You can also download a transcript of it.
    The following are the main points covered in the more than 2 hour long interview.

    -------------------------------
    Dr. Doug McGuff, M.D., an emergency room physician, is also an expert in one of my new passions of exercise, namely high-intensity interval training. One of the primary reasons that drove me into medicine was to apply my interest in exercise to optimize health.

    Of course, it morphed into other things like nutrition, but exercise has remained a longstanding passion. I've been exercising since 1968, but it was only recently – in the last two years – that I started to fully appreciate the benefits of high-intensity exercise.

    After 42 years of long-distance running, I switched over to what I refer to as Peak Fitness, which includes Sprint 8 exercises, and it was one of the best changes I've ever made in my exercise. I ditched the conventional cardio completely, and I'm experiencing the benefits of that decision.

    Dr. McGuff's passion for exercise began at the age of 14, and over the years, he's developed and refined his own techniques to reach optimal fitness. While I've been recommending high-intensity anaerobic training (Sprint 8) using an elliptical machine or a recumbent bike,

    Dr. McGuff is a proponent of high-intensity interval training using weights. In this interview, he discusses both high-intensity anaerobic-type training, and high-intensity super-slow weight training, which can achieve many of the same results using weights instead of a recumbent bike or elliptical.

    Redefining Exercise

    You've likely heard the terms: anaerobic, aerobic and cardiovascular training.

    "… [T]hose are all kind of false constructs created by the fitness industry," Dr. McGuff says. "The first thing you have to realize is that to do cardiovascular exercise, the only way that you can access the cardiovascular system is by performing mechanical work with muscle.

    Now, you can do that on an elliptical; you can do it on a Schwinn Airdyne, or you can do it on quality weight training equipment, or with a barbell. As long as you're doing mechanical work with muscle, you're accessing the cardiovascular system…

    If you look at cellular metabolism, that sort of work, whether you're doing aerobic low-intensity work or high-intensity work, proceeds to a certain shuttle. You take glucose into the cell and you go through glycolysis… [which turns it] into pyruvate.

    That pyruvate is then moved into the mitochondria, where it goes through a cycle of chemical reactions in the presence of oxygen. What occurs from glucose to pyruvate is—in the absence of oxygen—the anaerobic metabolism… Then the pyruvate gets moved into the mitochondria, that becomes your aerobic metabolism.


    But you cannot carry out any aerobic work without doing anaerobic work first. The aerobic cycle cannot even run unless it has the substrate delivered from the anaerobic cycle.

    The anaerobic cycle can deliver that substrate faster than the mitochondria can use it. So if you want an aerobic workout, the best way to do it is by delivering that substrate as fast as possible, and that requires high-intensity exercise."


    Achieve Greater Health Benefits in Less Time

    This is why high-intensity interval training cuts down on your exercise time so dramatically. You're actually getting MORE benefits from high-intensity training than you do from aerobic/cardio, in a fraction of the time—all because you're utilizing your body as it was designed to be used. You can literally be done in about 20 minutes, compared to spending an hour running on the treadmill.

    "… [T]he exercise physiology world has created an inextricable link between the aerobic metabolic system and the cardiovascular. But that's not true at all. There's no way that your heart and blood vessels are hooked up only to the mitochondria. The heart and blood vessels support the entire cellular metabolism," Dr. McGuff says. "The best way to get that benefit is with high-intensity intermittent exercise."

    If you give it some thought, it's actually easy to see that your body was designed for high-intensity, short-interval exercise. As Dr. McGuff says:

    "… the issue isn't necessarily the running for hours and hours and hours. It's the modality itself. You will never, in nature, see an animal jogging… What the steady-state activity does is it trains the plasticity out of your physiologic system—that ability to handle widely varying levels of exertion within a short span of time gets trained away. You actually make yourself less plastic and less adaptable to physical stress in general."

    High-Intensity Exercise Effectively Normalizes Insulin Levels

    High-intensity exercises sequentially recruit all the different types of muscle fibers in your body, starting with the smaller motor units made up of slow-twitch fibers—which are primarily aerobic in metabolism, have a lot of endurance, and recover quickly—to the intermediate fibers; followed by the fast-twitch fibers. The key to activating your fast-twitch muscle fibers is speed. (I've explained how to properly perform high-intensity interval exercises in great detail, so for a refresher, please see this previous article.)

    Your fast-twitch fibers are largely glycolytic and store a lot of glucose. When these muscles are recruited, it creates the stimulus needed to grow muscle. At the same time, it enlarges the glucose storage reservoir in the muscle, which in turn enhances your insulin sensitivity. I've often stated that normalizing your insulin is one of the primary health benefits of exercise, and this is particularly true in the case of high-intensity exercise. Conventional aerobics does not do this as efficiently

    "If you're doing long, slow, distance-type of exercise; what you're doing is you're very gradually recruiting the slow-twitch motor units. If you remember those will recover quickly," Dr. McGuff explains. "So rather than moving to the next set of motor units, you're just recruiting that one group over and over again."

    As a result, your intermediate and fast-twitch fibers actually begin to atrophy! Aside from losing muscle mass, you'll also experience earlier onset of loss of insulin sensitivity, leaving yourself open to a cascade of health ramifications, such as metabolic syndrome.

    Dietary Influence

    You can prevent some of this by optimizing your diet, i.e. avoiding sugars and processed foods, and making sure you consume high-quality healthy fat, but you can't negate it entirely. Unfortunately, most people simply eat far too many carbs—including many athletes. Your body's need for sugar is, biologically, very small. And when you consume more than you need, your body turns it into fat. As I've stated before, you do not get fat from eating fat—you get fat from eating too many carbs (sugar). Dr. McGuff explains:

    "Your skeletal muscle – if you're lucky – can hold maybe 250 grams of glucose, and your liver holds about 70. If you take 320 grams of glucose as what your storage capacity is, you can kill that with a single trip to Starbucks. Once you go beyond that, your body is going to find some sort of way to deal with those excess carbohydrates.

    If your glycogen storage is full, your body has nowhere else to put it. So instead of going all the way through this metabolic pathway, it… produces body fat. That's called the novel glycogenosis. We are in the midst of a very bizarre, evil-scientist type experiment in the Western world, because we are dumping into our bodies an amount of carbohydrate and, in particular, refined sugars, that are way above the capacity of our metabolism to handle normally."

    The result of our modern diet, which is loaded with grains and sugars (especially fructose), is a large percentage of obesity, and people that are overweight. This can be turned around, however, using a wise combination-approach of a high-fat, low-carb diet and high-intensity interval training.

    "Through an amplification cascade, when you're doing a high-intensity exercise, you very aggressively empty sugar out of your muscle cells. By doing that and combining over the low-carbohydrate diet, you start to heal the metabolism," Dr. McGuff explains. "They are able to access their energy source finally. That's how they can turn things around."

    It's crucial to remember that you cannot exercise your way out of a bad diet, and the first step toward improving your diet is to cut out as much sugar/fructose and grain-carbs as possible. (For more of Dr. McGuff's dietary insights, please listen to the interview in its entirety, or read through the transcript.) Your diet actually accounts for about 80 percent of the health benefits derived from a healthy lifestyle, with the remaining 20 percent coming from exercise. That benefit ratio could lean even higher toward diet, according to Dr. McGuff:

    "The standard American diet is highly inflammatory. It produces systemic inflammation of an order that is almost beyond belief. In that state, if you do exercise of any significant stress, you're just adding inflammation on top of the inflammation, and you're actually putting yourself at a bit of a risk. I advise people to get their diet straight and then exercise. Because I think a highly inflammatory diet, in combination with the acute systemic inflammation that occurs as a part of the exercise stimulus, can actually be a negative thing."

    High-Intensity Burst-Type Exercise Promotes Human Growth Hormone

    As you reach your 30s and beyond, you enter what's called "somatopause," when your levels of human growth hormone (HGH) begin to drop off quite dramatically. This is part of what drives your aging process. According to Dr. McGuff, there's also a strong correlation between somatopause and age-related sarcopenia (muscle loss). HGH is needed to sustain your fast-twitch muscle fibers, which produce a lot of power. It's also needed to stimulate those muscles.

    "What seems to be evident is that a high-intensity exercise stimulus is what triggers the body to make an adaptive response to hold on to muscle," Dr. McGuff says. "We have to remember that muscle is a very metabolically expensive tissue… If you become sedentary and send your body a signal that this tissue is not being used, then that tissue is metabolically expensive. The adaptation is to deconstruct that tissue…"

    High-intensity exercise promotes muscle building, but just how much muscle mass you gain is highly variable, and depends on your individual expression of certain genes. According to Dr. McGuff, there are about eight different genes relating to muscle mass, but probably the biggest determinant is a gene called myostatin.

    "We discussed that muscle is a very metabolically expensive tissue. Your genome has evolved a governor on how large your muscles can become, and how highly expressed that governor is will determine what your muscle mass response to exercise will be. Regardless of that, your body will shuffle around these different genetic alterations, and everyone gets stronger. Some people get enormously stronger without a lot of change in muscle mass. Other people become modestly stronger with very large increases in muscle mass.

    But regardless of whether the masses increased or not, what is for certain is their glucose storage capability – irrespective of how impressive the size increases – does increase significantly. That's the more important thing from a metabolic standpoint."

    Repetitions and Frequency of Exercise—What's the Ideal Amount?

    I've been recommending doing Sprint 8 exercises three times a week, but after doing that myself for about a year, I gradually felt that it was too much for me. I cut down to once a week, which seemed to work out well. But after discussing it with Phil Campbell, he made a compelling argument to increase it back to three times a week. Having your body produce growth hormone three times instead of just once a week can have profound health benefits, so I bumped it backed up.

    However, I did reduce the intensity by about five percent. Otherwise I just felt too fatigued between sessions. Dr. McGuff has also convinced me to make some additional changes to my routine, and I am experimenting with that. He believes you only need 12 minutes of Super Slow type strength training once a week to achieve the same growth hormone production as you would with Sprint 8. Intensity is key for making it work.

    "The intensity of the exercise needs to be high enough, so that you can't stand anymore; that you're giving up," Dr. McGuff says. "With that particular modality being used, somewhere in the realm are seven or eight repetitions – that's maybe about all that you can stand, which determines the dose of the exercise… [But] I found that the results in terms of response do not diminish at all when you cut back from eight down to five rounds. That begs you to say, "What are the other three rounds for, other than taxing my recovery ability unnecessarily?"

    Dr. McGuff points out that if the intensity is really high, the frequency may need to be reduced.

    "For any interval increase in intensity, there has to be a very disproportionate decrease in frequency for it to continue to be productive," he explains.

    For example, as a weak beginner, you can exercise three times a week and not put much stress on your system. But once your strength and endurance improves, each exercise session is placing an increasingly greater amount of stress on your body (as long as you keep pushing yourself to the max). At that point, Dr. McGuff recommends reducing the frequency of your sessions to give your body enough time to recover in between.

    "The whole notion of the growth hormone spurt becomes very important for a person who's deconditioned and has lost their fastest-twitch motor units in their skeletal muscle that demand it. But just the presence of having an improved metabolic condition and more fast-twitch muscle cells – just having that there – will augment the normal diurnal secretion of growth hormone that occurs and that should be occurring on a natural basis, but is after-feed in most people.

    Because you needed it three times a week to get that spurt [when you were] deconditioned does not mean you need it when you're in excellent condition. By the time you're in excellent condition, you already have the muscle tissue that drives the very large diurnal spike of growth hormone anyway. You only need that extra kick after you have fully recovered, which will be much less frequently."

    Why Less is More, When it Comes to High-Intensity Exercise

    So essentially, McGuff suggests that once you're fit, you really don't need frequent spurts of growth hormone production. Rather recovery takes precedence as being more important, and your recovery period could be anywhere from three to seven days. In fact, he strongly recommends NOT exercising too frequently once you are in fit condition, and here's why:

    "[Y]our adrenal gland… sits right above your kidneys, and it's arranged in layers. On the outermost layers, you have mineral corticoids that control your sodium and your electrolyte levels. In the middle layer, you have your corticosteroids that control sugar and generate stress hormones. And in the innermost layer is where you generate growth hormones and the sex steroids, or that's involved in the axis, in the feedback loop that generates that.

    The old saying in medical school to memorize the three layers is "salt, sugar, sex" – the deeper you go, the better it gets. But you got to remember, your adrenal gland is an integrated organ. Those three layers are not perfectly divided. If through high-intensity exercise you're trying to hammer that adrenal gland three times per week, but now you're much stronger and your body hasn't fully recovered from your Monday session and you come back and hit it again on Wednesday… you're going to tap down into that deeper level. Instead of growth hormones spurt, you're going to get in a cortisol spurt. You're going to completely undermine what is it that you're after."

    The Importance of Recovery

    I have known the importance of "Listening to Your Body," and always advocate this when it comes to selecting foods. But this also applies to exercise and recovery. The epiphany I had with Dr. McGuff was that I wasn't applying the 'listen to your body' principle with respect to my exercise program. When asked about the parameters of how to know if you are recovered from your exercise, he says:

    You would have a restless energy and feel like you have to engage in some type of physical activity. You will spontaneously just want to work out."

    Well that had not happened to me for some time, and I believe I was pushing myself too hard and had not allowed myself enough recovery time. This is probably not a problem for most people who exercise, as they are more than likely not pushing themselves hard enough, but when you go to extremes like in Peak Fitness, this is a serious risk you need to pay careful attention to. So, as a result of this fantastic interview, I'm now in a massive experimentation phase, and I'm having fun playing around with my exercise program. I can't tell you what a profound realization it was to hear this as it really resonated truth with me, and as a result I doubled the number of recovery days in my exercise program.

    So, I will likely be exercising the same length of time, just breaking it up differently. I suspect that will be more ideal for me and I intend to report on my results so you can learn from it. Dr. McGuff goes into far more detail with regards to his exercise recommendations than I have covered in this summary, so I highly recommend taking the time to listen to this interview in its entirety.

    Principles of High-Intensity Interval Weight Training

    As mentioned earlier, Dr. McGuff recommends using weights rather than a recumbent bike or elliptical machine. Metabolically speaking, both forms are very similar to each other.

    "Because what you're doing is that you're producing metabolic byproducts of that fatigue, in particular lactic acid," he explains. "You're moving quickly from one movement to the next, or through cycles of a particular movement in the case of interval training. That lactate begins to stack up in the system, and that generates the whole cascade of metabolic adaptations and improvements that make you more capable.

    The difference is that in the type of training I advocate, that metabolic stacking of these byproducts (that fatigue) occurs as a consequence of something even more important to the active genotype. In interval training, this is occurring as a side effect of the activity, whereas in the type of training I'm doing, it's occurring as a deliberate goal of what we're doing. That goal is to momentarily and deeply fatigue the starting level of strength of a given muscle group.

    What we're trying to do is we are trying to pick up the movement that will involve several large muscle groups, and then rapidly and systematically deeply fatigue all the fibers of those muscle groups in a span of 60 to 120 seconds."

    How to Perform Super-Slow Weight Lifting

    Essentially, by aggressively working your muscle to fatigue, you're stimulating the muscular adaptation that will improve the metabolic capability of the muscle and cause it to grow. McGuff recommends using four or five basic compound movements for your exercise set. These exercises can be done using either free weights or machines. The benefit of using a quality machine is that it will allow you to focus your mind on the effort, as opposed on the movement.

    Dr. McGuff recommends the following five movements:

    1. Pull-down (or alternatively chin-up)

    2. Chest press

    3. Compound row (A pulling motion in the horizontal plane)

    4. Overhead press

    5. Leg press

    Here's a summary of how to perform each exercise:

    1. Begin by lifting the weight as slowly and gradually as you can. The first inch should take about two seconds. Since you're depriving yourself of all the momentum of snatching the weight upward, it will be very difficult to complete the full movement in less than 7-10 seconds. (When pushing, stop about 10 to 15 degrees before your limb is fully straightened; smoothly reverse direction)

    2. Slowly lower the weight back down

    Repeat until exhaustion. (Once you reach exhaustion, don't try to heave or jerk the weight to get one last repetition in. Instead, just keep trying to produce the movement, even if it's not 'going' anywhere, for another five seconds or so. If you're using the appropriate amount of weight or resistance, you'll be able to perform four to eight repetitions) Immediately switch to the next exercise for the next target muscle group, and repeat the first three steps done in this fashion, your workout will take no more than 12 or 15 minutes. While this may sound ridiculously short, once you've tried it, you'll likely realize that it's really all you can muster. This super-slow movement allows your muscle, at the microscopic level, to access the maximum number of cross-bridges between the protein filaments that produce movement in the muscle.

    "It's sort of like a caterpillar or a centipede that's crawling along a surface. If you start off moving very, very slowly, you're going to engage more legs or more movement arms at the microscopic level. What you have in terms of movement is the difference between a centipede and a millipede, and that also produces very gradual movement.

    What the slow movement does is it keeps the muscle under a continuous load. It can never escape being under the stress of the weight, so the fatigue accumulates very quickly. We'll just have you lift and lower the weight until your fatigue accumulates to the point where you no longer have enough strength to continue to move the weight, at which point we will have you continue to attempt to produce movement even though it is not occurring for several more seconds, which drives your level of fatigue more deeply."

    More Effective AND Safer Too!

    This type of super-slow weight training has another benefit that makes it ideal for virtually everyone, regardless of age or fitness level, and that is safety, as it actively prevents you from accidentally harming your joints or suffering repetitive use injury.

    "Force is mass times acceleration. If you deprive yourself of the acceleration, you're delivering almost no punishment to your joints. There's no repetitive use injury," Dr. McGuff says. "The forces are extremely low, and as you become more fatigued, you're becoming much weaker. So you're actually delivering a smaller and smaller force to your body as you fatigue."

    I'm very excited about this information and have already begun implementing it into my fitness program. I hope you'll give it a try too!
    Bala likes this.
  3. Aanand

    Aanand Amatore

    Messages:
    195
    Pune
    Read the following in the light of what is written in the previous post in the paragraph titled Redefining Exercise.
    --------------------------------------------
    Dr. Kenneth Cooper is known as the Father of Aerobics.
    84 year old Dr. Ken Cooper, coined the term aerobics in 1968 and founded the world-renowned Cooper Aerobic Center in Dallas.
    It is he who triggered this craze for aerobics with his book titled 'Aerobics' (published in 1968).
    Subsequently he also published books titled The Aerobics Way, Aerobics for Women, The Aerobics Program for Total Well-being, Aerobics Program, Running Without Fear, The New Aerobics for Women, Run for Your Life, and so on.
    A total in excess of about 25 books.
    See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenneth_H._Cooper
    In his 1968 book Aerobics, weight lifting / strength training didn’t even make the list of desirable exercises.
    "I’ll state my position early," he wrote. "The best exercises are running, swimming, cycling, walking, stationary running, handball, basketball and squash, and in just about that order."
    He had no use for exercises aimed mainly at the skeletal muscles. He believed that stop-and-go exercises which make little or no demands on the lungs, heart and blood system were of little use for building "true fitness."
    But like any good scientist, Dr. Cooper kept an open mind and continued to learn over the course of his long and distinguished career in preventive medicine and physical fitness.
    Hence, in Regaining the Power of Youth At Any Age (published in 1998) he wrote: "As you grow older, the need to do strength training becomes increasingly important to help you retard the loss of muscle and bone mass."
    It was then that he is known to have begun upping his own iron pumping sessions from two to three days a week.
    What? The Father of Aerobics pumping iron? Yes. Indeed.
    "A good rule of thumb," said Cooper, "is that you should always include at least 50 percent aerobic/endurance work in your personal fitness routine, regardless of your age and sports interest."
    He added that everyone should perform "at least the minimum percentage of strength work. Otherwise, it’s virtually inevitable that you will suffer a dramatic loss in strength and muscle mass."
    Cooper said the desirable ratio (of strength to aerobic work) varies depending on your personal goals.
    ---------------------------------
    Re-read the paragraph in the previous post under the title Redefining Exercise.
    Perhaps it's time to begin considering that high intensity strength training is the best way to enhance health.
  4. jumu

    jumu Superiore

    Messages:
    969
    Chennai
    All exercises are aerobic. There is no anaerobic exercise. So it was a marketing stunt that clung on. When you do the exercise a little more strenuously the breathing demand is more and hence more oxygen is inhaled. Yoga lets you achieve the similar forced oxidatation while sitting called Pranayama. Let me tell you , many who may be going to hi tech gymnasiums which are fully air conditioned, that you will burn energy much more if you do the same in open environment. The availability fresh air and oxygen is paramount, and what you get in an A/c gym is stale recirculated air. It goes against the grain to exercise in closed indoors. It doesnt help at all. Also you need to sweat, as the skin is the largest excretory organ and many undesirable body wastes take that route to exit the body. I do see many coming out of gyms as fresh as a daisy.

    A mild jog and some bending to remove the stiffness, combined with sensible diet is all that is required to stay fit. Not everybody who is fit has run, and bent his back to achieve it:).

    Abdul
    Aanand likes this.
  5. Ganges

    Ganges Esperto

    Messages:
    3,119
    Driver Seat _/
    :
    Grande Punto 1.3
    Thank you. Waiting for Kadak(Hindi) Sun. Since one week suffering from xonjuxticitis, today feeling better.
  6. Aanand

    Aanand Amatore

    Messages:
    195
    Pune
  7. Aanand

    Aanand Amatore

    Messages:
    195
    Pune
    As a receiver of the benefits of medical science, I found this version of the Hippocratic Oath interesting:
    Quote
    Modern Version
    I swear to fulfill, to the best of my ability and judgment, this covenant:
    I will respect the hard-won scientific gains of those physicians in whose steps I walk, and gladly share such knowledge as is mine with those who are to follow.
    I will apply, for the benefit of the sick, all measures which are required, avoiding those twin traps of overtreatment and therapeutic nihilism.
    I will remember that there is art to medicine as well as science, and that warmth, sympathy, and understanding may outweigh the surgeon's knife or the chemist's drug.
    I will not be ashamed to say "I know not," nor will I fail to call in my colleagues when the skills of another are needed for a patient's recovery.
    I will respect the privacy of my patients, for their problems are not disclosed to me that the world may know.
    Most especially must I tread with care in matters of life and death. If it is given me to save a life, all thanks. But it may also be within my power to take a life; this awesome responsibility must be faced with great humbleness and awareness of my own frailty.
    Above all, I must not play at God.
    I will remember that I do not treat a fever chart, a cancerous growth, but a sick human being, whose illness may affect the person's family and economic stability. My responsibility includes these related problems, if I am to care adequately for the sick.
    I will prevent disease whenever I can, for prevention is preferable to cure.
    I will remember that I remain a member of society, with special obligations to all my fellow human beings, those sound of mind and body as well as the infirm.
    If I do not violate this oath, may I enjoy life and art, respected while I live and remembered with affection thereafter.
    May I always act so as to preserve the finest traditions of my calling and may I long experience the joy of healing those who seek my help.

    Written in 1964 by Louis Lasagna, Academic Dean of the School of Medicine at Tufts University, and used in many medical schools today.
    Unquote
    Ref: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippocratic_Oath
    --------------------------------
    I wonder what is the version used in our country?
  8. Aanand

    Aanand Amatore

    Messages:
    195
    Pune
    http://www.ultimate-exercise.com/cv.html
    CARDIOVASCULAR ADAPTATIONS
    by M. Doug McGuff, M.D.

    The function of your cardiovascular system is to pump oxygen and nutrient rich blood to the tissues of your body.
    The "cardio" in cardiovascular refers to your heart. Your heart's contribution is its pumping action that moves the blood through your body.
    The "vascular" in cardiovascular refers to your blood vessels, which include the arterial system that carries blood from your heart to your organs and the venous system which carries blood back from your organs to your heart.
    Your blood vessels can change their caliber and thus affect the resistance that your heart has to pump against, which in turn affects how much blood can be pushed forward with each beat of your heart.

    Your heart produces bloodflow or cardiac output through its heart rate and its stroke volume (how much blood pushed forward per heartbeat).
    If you need to increase your cardiac output, you can do so by increasing your heart rate, increasing your stroke volume or both.
    You can also increase your cardiac output by dilating the arteries and decreasing the resistance (called peripheral vascular resistance) that the heart must pump against.
    One last way to increase cardiac output is to increase the amount of blood returning to your heart. Your heart functions like a sump pump. This means whatever volume is brought into the pump is the volume that is pushed out of the pump. Thus, if you increase the amount of blood returning to the heart from the venous side of the circulation, you will increase the amount of blood pumped out of the heart (this is called Starling's Law of the Heart).

    Now that you have a basic understanding of cardiovascular physiology, you can now see the various ways that we may enhance our cardiovascular functioning by increasing our cardiac output.
    We can strengthen our heart so that it pumps more with each beat (increased stroke volume).
    We can increase our heart rate in times of demand.
    We can have more plentiful and more pliable blood vessels so that our heart has to pump against less resistance (lower systemic vascular resistance-lower blood pressure).
    Or, we can enhance venous return to the heart.

    Traditional aerobic exercise has been known to produce many of these positive adaptations. Most of this has been demonstrated using a test called V02max which is a measure of oxygen utilization during exercise.
    Scientists have found that V02max tracks cardiac output and thus have used it as an indirect measure of how effectively a particular exercise was at stimulating the cardiovascular system.
    The use of this test is one of the main reasons that resistance training was felt to be a poor stimulator of the cardiovascular system. It seems that at the very high levels of exertion seen in resistance training V02max falls off.
    Rather than assuming something may be flawed with the test, scientists assumed that cardiac output must fall during weight training. They reasoned that the contracting and engorged muscles squeezed the blood vessels and increased peripheral vascular resistance and trapped venous blood which inhibited cardiac return. In addition to decreasing cardiac output, many thought resistance training dangerously raised blood pressure.

    Despite saying that it had little effect on the heart, most experts said resistance training was unsafe for those with heart disease because it placed too great a strain on the heart.

    I had always maintained that resistance training had a profound effect on the cardiovascular system.
    The reason the muscles pump up and become engorged is directly due to increased blood flow from increased cardiac output. When you perform hard exercise, adrenaline causes your arteries in your gut to constrict and the arteries in your muscles to dilate. This diverts blood flow to your working muscles and is why your mom told you not to swim right after eating.
    The dilation of these arteries causes a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance, which allows an increase in cardiac output.
    Furthermore, the "pump" that occurs in the muscles along with the squeezing actions of the working muscles actually "milks" blood from the venous system towards the heart.
    Veins, unlike arteries, have very little tone. They act as passive conduits of blood. The major way that blood in the veins is made to move back towards the heart is by the milking action of the working muscles. The more forcefully a muscle contracts, the more profound will be this milking action. This increased blood return to the heart creates a need for an increased cardiac output because of Starling's Law of the Heart.
    Even more important, is the fact that coronary artery blood flow is dependent on blood return to the heart, which increases the blood leaving the aorta. As blood leaves the aorta it rushes forward. During diastole (the relaxation phase of the heartbeat) aortic blood washes back into the coronary arteries. An increase in cardiac output as a result of increased venous return causes a rise in the end diastolic bloodflow in the aorta. Coronary artery blood flow is proportionate to end diastolic bloodflow.

    I mention this because of some observations I have made in several of my clients.
    I have some clients with known coronary artery narrowing. Their coronary artery disease causes them to have angina, which is heart pain due to poor coronary artery blood flow. Despite exercising these subjects at a relatively high intensity, we have never had any episodes of angina. These same clients will get angina when walking uphill or exercising on a treadmill or bike.
    My theory (and it is still only a theory) is that walking does not produce intense enough muscular contractions to stimulate increased venous return which would augment end diastolic blood flow and coronary artery blood flow.
    I believe resistance training increases venous return and coronary blood flow so that these subjects can tolerate a much higher intensity of exercise without experiencing angina.

    Despite many experts' concern that resistance training may not be safe for those with coronary artery disease, I believe we may come to find that it is the only form of exercise safe for these people.
    Furthermore, since steady state exercise increases demands on the heart without a significant enhancement of venous return and coronary blood flow...it may be the most dangerous form of exercise for cardiac rehab patients.
    Currently, most cardiac rehab programs emphasize the development of "aerobic conditioning" before any resistance training is considered.
    In the future, I believe we should not consider exposing these people to aerobic exercise until they have developed an adequate base of strength conditioning through proper resistance training.

    Below are listings of research articles that I feel support my conclusions.

    1. Hemodynamic responses during leg press exercise in patients with chronic congestive heart failure. Myer K and Hajric R, et.al. Am J Cardiol. 1999 Jun 1; 83(11):1537-43.
    In this study the subjects had a catheter in place that was actually inserted into the central circulation so that cardiovascular changes could be measured directly. Subjects were stable patients and patients with congestive heart failure. Measurements were taken while they performed resistance training on a leg press machine. Both groups showed beneficial changes in cardiac parameters, but this was more pronounced in the stable group of patients.
    More important than the differences between the groups was the actual effect on the cardiovascular system. The findings confirmed the assertions that I made above. There were significant increases in heart rate, diastolic pulmonary artery pressure (a measure of venous return and end diastolic pressure and thus, indirectly a measure of coronary blood flow), as well as an increase in cardiac index (which is cardiac output per unit of body surface area).
    Even at the highest workloads, they found a decrease in systemic vascular resistance which resulted in an increased cardiac index and enhanced left ventricular function.
    This study shows that I was correct. All of the explanations for why V02max might fall off during resistance training are not occurring. Resistance training does in fact produce dramatic beneficial cardiovascular changes.


    2. Resistance trained athletes using or not using steroids compared to runners: effects on cardiorespiratory variables, body composition and plasma lipids. Yeater R, Reed C, et. al. Br J Sports Med 1996 Mar;30(1):11-4.
    Many experts have done studies to show that resistance training causes unfavorable changes in cardiovascular parameters and lipid profiles. This perpetuated the myth that "weight training is bad for your heart". Studies that supported this notion never tried to factor the contribution that steroid use may have had to the data. This study sought to control for this factor. It seems that the steroid users were the ones with the negative cardiac effects and they were skewing the data.
    The conclusion of this study? "Resistance training in the absence of steroid use results in the same positive effects on cardiac dimensions, diastolic function, and blood lipids as aerobic training".


    3. Strength training normalizes resting blood pressure in 65- to 73-year-old men and women with high normal blood pressure. Martel GF, et. al. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999 Oct;47(10):1215-21.
    We have commonly heard warnings from medical experts that weight training may cause elevation of the blood pressure and should be avoided in those with high or borderline high blood pressure. This study followed 21 subjects, all over age 65 with borderline hypertension. The subjects performed whole-body weight training involving 7 exercises. The study was carried out for 6 months.
    All of the study subjects showed improvement in their blood pressure.
    To quote the researchers' conclusion... "the changes in resting BP noted in the present study represent a shift from the high normal category to the normal category".


    4. Progressive resistance exercise and resting blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Kelley GA, Kelley KS Hypertension 2000 Mar;35(3):838-43.
    A meta-analysis is an attempt to look at every quality study that addresses a particular subject. The pooling of data that occurs in a meta-analysis provides greater numbers of study subjects which gives more power to the study's conclusions. With thousands of study subjects, the probability that the study's results were due to chance alone become almost non-existent.
    The criteria to make it into this meta-analysis included: (1) trials that included a randomized nonexercise control group; (2) progressive resistance exercise as the only intervention; (3) adult humans; (4) journal articles, dissertations, and masters theses published in English-language literature; (5) studies published between January 1996 and December 1998; (6) resting systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure assessed; and (7) training studies lasting a minimum of 4 weeks.
    These criteria assured that only the best objective studies were included.
    The conclusion of this meta-analysis is "progressive resistance exercise is efficacious for reducing resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults".


    5. Physiological response to circuit weight training in borderline hypertensive subjects. Harris KA, Holly RG. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1987 Jun;19(3):246-52.
    Even though the above studies have shown that resistance training improves blood pressure in people with borderline hypertension, many are still concerned that blood pressure may rise to dangerous levels during the workout itself.
    This study followed 10 experimental and 16 control subjects through 9 weeks of resistance training.
    Marked increases in strength were noted, but more importantly they concluded... "circuit weight training does not exacerbate resting or exercise blood pressure".


    6. Blood pressure in resistance-trained athletes. Colliander EB, Tesch PA Can J Sport Sci 1988 Mar;13(1):31-4.
    Despite the evidence presented in the above studies showing that resistance training actually improves blood pressure, many still argue that these are not necessarily meaningful studies because the studies are only weeks or months long. It has been suggested that it is long term weight training, as performed by athletes or bodybuilders that may cause problems.
    In this study long-term bodybuilders were compared against age-matched controls. Blood pressure was measured both at rest and during exercise.
    The conclusion of the study is... "intense long-term strength training, as performed by bodybuilders, does not constitute a potential cardiovascular risk factor.


    7. Effects of long term resistance training on left ventricular morphology. Haykowsky MJ, et. al. Can J Cardiol 2000 Jan;16(1):35-8.
    "Weight training will enlarge your heart", how many times have you heard this statement? I've heard it so many times that I've lost count. I've even heard it from fellow physicians. The condition they refer to is actually called IHSS (ischemic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis). The enlarged ventricle does not allow blood to flow out of the aorta and fatal heart dysrhythmias can occur. This condition can be seen in athletes, particularly strength athletes.
    My own suspicion is that the condition is probably related to steroid abuse in those with a congenital abnormality.
    This recent study addresses the question of whether long term resistance training causes heart enlargement. Echocardiograms were performed on 21 elite male powerlifters and 10 control subjects. None of the powerlifters showed any sign of heart enlargement. Powerlifters carry out the type of training that would be most likely to cause heart enlargement.
    Despite this fact the study concludes... "contrary to common beliefs, long term resistance training as performed by elite male power-lifters does not alter LV morphology".


    I hope I have shown with good scientific evidence that resistance training is the best way to train your cardiovascular system.
    All the changes that are produced by traditional cardiovascular exercise (which was previously thought not to occur with resistance training) are actually produced to an even greater degree with high intensity resistance training.
    Furthermore, all the potential dangers to the cardiovascular system such as increased blood pressure, and heart strain that have been attributed to resistance training actually turns out to be nothing more than a myth.
    In my opinion, resistance training is actually protective to the heart during exertion.
    Increased blood return to the heart increases coronary artery blood flow. This allows for higher levels of exertion with less risk of coronary ischemia.
    For people with coronary artery disease, resistance training may prove to be the safest and most effective way to improve their cardiovascular health.
    As it turns out this is not just my opinion.
    There are numerous research studies that show that resistance training is safe for those with coronary artery disease and even in those who have recently had heart attacks.
    The cardiovascular improvements have been equal or better than that seen with traditional cardiac rehabilitation.

    Below is a list of articles that show that resistance training is safe and beneficial for those with cardiac disease.
    1. Role of resistance training in heart disease. McCartney N. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1988 Oct; 30(10 Suppl):S396-402.
    2. Usefulness of weightlifting training in improving strength and maximal power output in coronary disease. McCartney N, et.al. Am J Cardiol 1991 May 1;67(11):939-45.
    3. Circuit weight training in cardiac patients: determining optimal workloads for safety and energy expenditure. DeGroot DW, et.al. J Cardiopulm Rehabil 1998 Mar-Apr;18(2):145-52.
    4. Resistive training effects on strength and cardiovascular endurance in cardiac and coronary prone patients. Stewart KJ. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1989 Dec;21(6):678-82.
    5. Circuit weight training in cardiac patients. Keleman MH, et. al. J Am Coll Cardiol 1986 Jan;7(1):38-42.
    6. Strength training early after myocardial infarction. Daub WD, et. al. J Cardiopulm Rehabil 1996 Mar-Apr;16(2):100-8.
    7. The role of resistance training in patients with cardiac disease. McCartney N, McKelvie RS. J Cardiovasc Risk 1996 Apr;3(2):160-6.
    8. Resistive exercise training in cardiac rehabilitation. An update. Verrill DE, Ribisl PM. Sports Med 1996 May;21(5):347-83.
    9. Effects of weight training on muscle strength and exercise capacity in patients after myocardial infarction. Yamasaki H, et.al. J Cardiol 1995 Dec;26(6):341-7.
    10. Safety and efficacy of weight training soon after acute myocardial infarction. Stewart KJ, et. al. J Cardiopulm Rehabil 1998 Jan-Feb;18(1):37-44.
    11. Effects of high-intensity strength training on quality-of-life parameters in cardiac rehabilitation patients. Beniamini Y, et.al. Am J Cardiol 1997 Oct 1;80(7):841-6.
    12. High-intensity strength training of patients enrolled in an outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program. Beniamini Y, et.al. J Cardiopulm Rehabil 1999 Jan-Feb;19(1):8-17.

    The abstracts of the above articles can be pulled up from the National Library of Medicine at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
  9. Aanand

    Aanand Amatore

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    What the Science says about Intermittent Fasting
    http://fitness.mercola.com/sites/fitness/archive/2013/06/28/intermittent-fasting-health-benefits.aspx
    - Dr Mercola

    Story at-a-glance
    • It's long been known that calorie restriction can increase the lifespan of certain animals. More recent research suggests that intermittent fasting can provide the same health benefits as constant calorie restriction, which may be helpful for those who cannot successfully reduce their everyday calorie intake
    • “Undernutrition without malnutrition” is the only experimental approach that consistently improves survival in animals with cancer, and extends overall lifespan by about 30 percent
    • Both intermittent fasting and continuous calorie restriction have been shown to produce weight loss and improve metabolic disease risk markers. However, intermittent fasting tends to be slightly more effective for reducing insulin resistance
    • Besides turning you into an efficient fat burner, intermittent fasting can also boost your level of human growth hormone (aka the “fitness hormone”) production by as much as 1,200 percent for women and 2,000 percent for men
    • Intermittent fasting can improve brain function by boosting production of the protein BDNF, which activates brain stem cells to convert into new neurons and triggers other chemicals that promote neural health. This protein also protects your brain cells from changes associated with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, and helps protect your neuro-muscular system from degradation
    Is it a good idea to “starve” yourself just a little bit each day, or a couple of days a week? Mounting evidence indicates that yes, intermittent fasting (IF) could have a very beneficial impact on your health and longevity.

    I believe it’s one of the most powerful interventions out there if you’re struggling with your weight and related health issues. One of the primary reasons for this is because it helps shift your body from burning sugar/carbs to burning fat as its primary fuel.

    As discussed in the featured article,1 intermittent fasting is not about binge eating followed by starvation, or any other extreme form of dieting. Rather what we’re talking about here involves timing your meals to allow for regular periods of fasting.

    I prefer daily intermittent fasting, but you could also fast a couple of days a week if you prefer, or every other day. There are many different variations.

    To be effective, in the case of daily intermittent fasting, the length of your fast must be at least 16 hours. This means eating only between the hours of 11am until 7pm, as an example. Essentially, this equates to simply skipping breakfast, and making lunch your first meal of the day instead.

    You can restrict it even further — down to six, four, or even two hours if you want, but you can still reap many of these rewards by limiting your eating to an eight-hour window each day.

    This is because it takes about six to eight hours for your body to metabolize your glycogen stores; after that you start to shift to burning fat. However, if you are replenishing your glycogen by eating every eight hours (or sooner), you make it far more difficult for your body to use your fat stores as fuel.

    Intermittent Fasting — More a Lifestyle Than a Diet

    I have been experimenting with different types of scheduled eating for the past two years and currently restrict my eating to a 6- to 7-hour window each day. While you’re not required to restrict the amount of food you eat when on this type of daily scheduled eating plan, I would caution against versions of intermittent fasting that gives you free reign to eat all the junk food you want when not fasting, as this seems awfully counterproductive.

    Also, according to research published in 2010,2 intermittent fasting with compensatory overeating did not improve survival rates nor delay prostate tumor growth in mice. Essentially, by gorging on non-fasting days, the health benefits of fasting can easily be lost. If so, then what’s the point?

    I view intermittent fasting as a lifestyle, not a diet, and that includes making healthy food choices whenever you do eat. Also, proper nutrition becomes even more important when fasting, so you really want to address your food choices before you try fasting.

    This includes minimizing carbs and replacing them with healthful fats, like coconut oil, olive oil, olives, butter, eggs, avocados, and nuts. It typically takes several weeks to shift to fat burning mode, but once you do, your cravings for unhealthy foods and carbs will automatically disappear. This is because you’re now actually able to burn your stored fat and don’t have to rely on new fast-burning carbs for fuel. Unfortunately, despite mounting evidence, many health practitioners are still reluctant to prescribe fasting to their patients. According to Brad Pilon, author of Eat Stop Eat:3

    “Health care practitioners across the board are so afraid to recommend eating less because of the stigma involved in that recommendation, but we are more than happy to recommend that someone start going to the gym. If all I said was you need to get to the gym and start eating healthier, no one would have a problem with it. When the message is not only should you eat less, you could probably go without eating for 24 hours once or twice a week, suddenly it’s heresy.”

    The Health Benefits of Intermittent Fasting

    Aside from removing your cravings for sugar and snack foods and turning you into an efficient fat-burning machine, thereby making it far easier to maintain a healthy body weight, modern science has confirmed there are many other good reasons to fast intermittently. For example, research presented at the 2011 annual scientific sessions of the American College of Cardiology in New Orleans4 showed that fasting triggered a 1,300 percent rise of human growth hormone (HGH) in women, and an astounding 2,000 percent in men.

    HGH, human growth hormone, commonly referred to as "the fitness hormone," plays an important role in maintaining health, fitness and longevity, including promotion of muscle growth, and boosting fat loss by revving up your metabolism. The fact that it helps build muscle while simultaneously promoting fat loss explains why HGH helps you lose weight without sacrificing muscle mass, and why even athletes can benefit from the practice (as long as they don't overtrain and are careful about their nutrition). The only other thing that can compete in terms of dramatically boosting HGH levels is high-intensity interval training. Other health benefits of intermittent fasting include:

    Normalizing your insulin and leptin sensitivity, which is key for optimal health


    Improving biomarkers of disease

    Normalizing ghrelin levels, also known as "the hunger hormone"


    Reducing inflammation and lessening free radical damage

    Lowering triglyceride levels


    Preserving memory functioning and learning


    Intermittent Fasting Is as Good or Better Than Continuous Calorie Restriction

    According to Dr. Stephen Freedland, associate professor of urology and pathology at the Duke University Medical Center, “undernutrition without malnutrition” is the only experimental approach that consistently improves survival in animals with cancer, as well as extends lifespan overall by as much as 30 percent.5 Interestingly enough, intermittent fasting appears to provide nearly identical health benefits without being as difficult to implement and maintain. It’s easier for most people to simply restrict their eating to a narrow window of time each day, opposed to dramatically decreasing their overall daily calorie intake.

    Mark Mattson, senior investigator for the National Institute on Aging, which is part of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), has researched the health benefits of intermittent fasting, as well as the benefits of calorie restriction. According to Mattson,6 there are several theories to explain why fasting works:

    "The one that we've studied a lot, and designed experiments to test, is the hypothesis that during the fasting period, cells are under a mild stress, and they respond to the stress adaptively by enhancing their ability to cope with stress and, maybe, to resist disease... There is considerable similarity between how cells respond to the stress of exercise and how cells respond to intermittent fasting.”

    In one of his studies,7 overweight adults with moderate asthma lost eight percent of their body weight by cutting their calorie intake by 80 percent on alternate days for eight weeks. Markers of oxidative stress and inflammation also decreased, and asthma-related symptoms improved, along with several quality-of-life indicators.

    More recently, Mattson and colleagues compared the effectiveness of intermittent fasting against continuous calorie restriction for weight loss, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic disease risk markers. The study, published in the International Journal of Obesity in 2011,8 found that intermittent fasting was as effective as continuous calorie restriction for improving all of these issues, and slightly better for reducing insulin resistance. According to the authors:

    “Both groups experienced comparable reductions in leptin, free androgen index, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure and increases in sex hormone binding globulin, IGF binding proteins 1 and 2. Reductions in fasting insulin and insulin resistance were modest in both groups, but greater with IER [intermittent fasting] than with CER [continuous energy restriction].”

    How Intermittent Fasting Benefits Your Brain

    Your brain can also benefit from intermittent fasting. As reported in the featured article:

    “Mattson has also researched the protective benefits of fasting to neurons. If you don't eat for 10–16 hours, your body will go to its fat stores for energy, and fatty acids called ketones will be released into the bloodstream. This has been shown to protect memory and learning functionality, says Mattson, as well as slow disease processes in the brain.”

    Besides releasing ketones as a byproduct of burning fat, intermittent fasting also affects brain function by boosting production of a protein called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Mattson’s research suggests that fasting every other day (restricting your meal on fasting days to about 600 calories), tends to boost BDNF by anywhere from 50 to 400 percent,9 depending on the brain region. BDNF activates brain stem cells to convert into new neurons, and triggers numerous other chemicals that promote neural health. This protein also protects your brain cells from changes associated with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.

    BDNF also expresses itself in the neuro-muscular system where it protects neuro-motors from degradation. (The neuromotor is the most critical element in your muscle. Without the neuromotor, your muscle is like an engine without ignition. Neuro-motor degradation is part of the process that explains age-related muscle atrophy.) So BDNF is actively involved in both your muscles and your brain, and this cross-connection, if you will, appears to be a major part of the explanation for why a physical workout can have such a beneficial impact on your brain tissue — and why the combination of intermittent fasting with high intensity exercise appears to be a particularly potent combination.

    Give Intermittent Fasting a Try

    If you’re ready to give intermittent fasting a try, consider skipping breakfast, make sure you stop eating and drinking anything but water three hours before you go to sleep, and restrict your eating to an 8-hour (or less) time frame every day. In the 6-8 hours that you do eat, have healthy protein, minimize your carbs like pasta, bread, and potatoes and exchange them for healthful fats like butter, eggs, avocado, coconut oil, olive oil and nuts — essentially the very fats the media and “experts” tell you to avoid.

    This will help shift you from carb burning to fat burning mode. Once your body has made this shift, it is nothing short of magical as your cravings for sweets, and food in general, rapidly normalizes and your desire for sweets and junk food radically decreases if not disappears entirely.

    Remember it takes a few weeks, and you have to do it gradually, but once you succeed and switch to fat burning mode, you'll be easily able to fast for 18 hours and not feel hungry. The “hunger” most people feel is actually cravings for sugar, and these will disappear, as if by magic, once you successfully shift over to burning fat instead.

    Another phenomenal side effect/benefit that occurs is that you will radically improve the beneficial bacteria in your gut. Supporting healthy gut bacteria, which actually outnumber your cells 10 to one, is one of the most important things you can do to improve your immune system so you won’t get sick, or get coughs, colds and flus. You will sleep better, have more energy, have increased mental clarity and concentrate better. Essentially every aspect of your health will improve as your gut flora becomes balanced.

    Based on my own phenomenal experience with intermittent fasting, I believe it’s one of the most powerful ways to shift your body into fat burning mode and improve a wide variety of biomarkers for disease.

    The effects can be further magnified by exercising while in a fasted state. For more information on that, please see my previous article High-Intensity Interval Training and Intermittent Fasting - A Winning Combo.

    Clearly, it’s another powerful tool in your box to help you and your family take control of your health, and an excellent way to take your fitness to the next level.
  10. Aanand

    Aanand Amatore

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    Heart
    Attached is a .pdf file containing Questions and Answers.

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