Market concentration increases further, overall as well as in-each-segment or price-band. Top 3/4 firms have a lock on 75% or so of the market. A lock. The idea that lots of great marketing makes a success of a brand or model, sales wise, has again been belied by several examples of firms with ALREADY weak or indifferent brand-'equity' running large, expensive ad campaigns, supplemented by massive and repeated, well-advertized easy-finance and discount schemes (Ford, Nissan and Skoda recently) to NO avail. Many slow-selling brands have massive discounts that've been running for the last many months: that makes little to no difference. The median consumer in india does NOT respond to price signals, IF the brand and/or model is already 'at a discount' in terms of sales-popularity and/or after-sales assurance perceptions (however false or exagerrated.) Evidence that the herding-effects of different types are EXTREME in the indian market. In any case, even the top dominant brands are running big-discount schemes on many models (eg., the ones being proferred to ola+uber etc taxi buyers), in fact their ability to squelch ANY price-warrior challenge to their 'hold' on the market is epic, since their scale economies and profit margins are already huge. Newly-introduced models are either outright hits (Maruti and Hyundai, mainly) or outright and never-to-recover flops: this tendency is getting exacerbated. What this means is that any firm looking to launch an all-new model(s) is running very great risks, greater than in any other large car market in the world. No car market in the world sees 2-4 firms dominate in this manner, in segment after after segment, to this extreme degree, with their new as well as old models. It has been reported that GM and Ford too (which have recently shown a willingness to quit entire markets, as they've done recently in japan, indonesia, russia etc) have their india-operations and investments under severe review. GM, btw, has accumulated losses in India of over 1 billion$, FORD's new Gujarat plant, based on gratuitously large subsidies from that state government/CM, has only further added to its accumulated losses of thousands of crores (Figo+Aspire having bombed completely, and very strangely.) Even Honda, which invested in a new diesel engine, a new plant and an all-new platform (largely with india in mind), going on a new-model offensive over the last 2-4 years has found that, EVEN it, with its percieved high brand-equity, and despite at-least a few thousands of cars in sales volume, is not immune to the indian car market's uniquely potent ability to inflict huge financial losses on car companies. Toyota too has put all mass-market investments on hold in India:no new Etios+Liva+small crossover etc from them: they too are reviewing India as a mass-, high volume+high investment market. SO. For the non-Maruti+Hyundai firms: Ads tend strongly not to work. Neither do discounts. Nor do 'new' model offerings per se, nor potent engines, ride-handling, safety, build quality etc. What works are (a) first-mover models (e.g., Kwid, Ecosport) and/or (b) 'reputable' aftersales and resale value. That's it. FCA, then, is doing the right thing by going all-in with the JEEP brand, already a known, familiar common-noun one, and with some claim in India to being, as a brand, a first-mover ((a), above) and with a clean slate on (b) above. IF the upcoming for Sept 1st launch of the Jeep brand and dealerships goes well, as do the localized c-suv sales in mid- or end- 2017, only THEN would fca even think of high-riskily investing in new models for the FIAT brand (not before end-2018/19)? Especially since there will apparently be a b-suv from Jeep too eventually (2018?) after the local production and esp exports of the c-suv. The only way to square the circle, then, is to adopt an export-centric approach, EVEN for future India-made Fiats, harder though that is compared to JEEP. i.e., models maybe like the rhd 500X and 500L (emerging-markets, lower cost chassis and suspension etc, shared with the JEEP emerging markets-special JEEP, a small, sub-Renegade model apparently planned for exports outof and esp sales-in India after the c-suv). Rather than the poorly-exportable 'new Punto', 'new Linea/grand Sienna/Tipo', or 'new Avventura'? Unless they decide to use India/Ranjangaon to break into new, even lhd markets, for the FIAT brand like say Iran, Egypt, Turkey, North African countries....?